Reconstruction of Ilion and Troy around 1200 BCE (59.4 x 42 cm)
Artist’s impression of Troy, based on descriptions from historical sources with quotations from ancient and medieval literature. © Christoph Haußner
The thus far known archaeological site of Troy represents only a royal citadel. In all likelihood, the city itself was located in the alluvial plain below the citadel. Its ruins are still buried there under about five meters of floodplain deposits. Numerous sources from antiquity to the medieval suggest what the real Troy looked like at its peak. Some of these statements are provided on the poster. The artistic reconstruction is based on these transmission.
Luwian settlements in Western Asia Minor (29.7 x 42 cm)
Map showing the locations of the 340 known settlements of the 2nd millennium BC in western Asia Minor along with floodplains, mineral resources and trade routes. © Eberhard Zangger
This is an extract from the map of the eastern Mediterranean and focuses on the newly registered Late Bronze Age archaeological sites in the west of modern Turkey, showing them in their geographical setting. Of the 340 settlements, only two have been excavated on a large scale and published in a Western language: Troy and Beycesultan.
The Sea Peoples and their contemporaries around 1200 BCE (59.4 x 42 cm)
Reconstructions of the external appearance of Late Bronze Age people from around the eastern Mediterranean region on the basis of Egyptian grave paintings and glazed pottery. © Rosemary Robertson
The ethnic groups differed in terms of skin color, hair style, clothes and weapons. Since the representations in the Egyptian paintings and painted pottery are quite specific, the appearance of the warriors can be reconstructed in much detail.
Current and proposed model for the Aegean Bronze Age (29.7 x 42 cm)
Comparison between the schematic existing model for the distribution of cultures at the end of the Bronze Age and the newly proposed model. © Eberhard Zangger
The currently valid model for the Aegean Bronze Age (above) goes back to the 1920s. Three civilizations existed in the Aegean area (Mycenaean, Minoan and Cycladic), and were contemporary with the Hittite Empire in Central Asia Minor. According to this model, the large region between the Hittite Empire and the Mycenaean petty kingdoms contained no significant culture; despite the fact that this region is particularly rich in ore deposits and arable land. With Troy, it also hosts the world’s most famous stratified archaeological site. – In the proposed new model, the petty kingdoms in western Asia Minor that have been known for a long time are finally acknowledged. The umbrella term “Luwian civilization” is introduced to designate people and places who existed in this area during the Late Bronze Age.
Luwian Hieroglyphs (42 x 29.7 cm)
The best-preserved large inscription from the Empire period. © Oculus Illustration GmbH
The hieroglyphic inscription on the western inside wall of Chamber 2 in Boğazköy (Hattuša) was discovered during excavations in the SÜDBURG areal in 1988. It is about 4 meter wide and 1.8 meters tall and the best preserved inscription from the Empire period. The signs are worked as reliefs in limestone with the background cut away, as is normal for these Luwian inscriptions. The text begins in the upper right corner and then continues boustrophedon (i. e. turning like oxen in ploughing). The second line (left to right) lists a number of deities indicated by oval signs. The third line lists cities, marked by mountain symbols. The Great King Suppiluliuma is said to have conquered these places, but it is still uncertain, whether the first (1355–1320 BCE) or second king (1205–1192 BCE) by this name was meant.
Chronological chart of the cultures around the eastern Mediterranean 1450-1150 BCE (42 x 29.7 cm)
Chronological chart for the time 1450-1150 BCE for the countries around the Eastern Mediterranean indicating reigns of individual rulers. © Eberhard Zangger
This chart was first introduced in 1994 and despite initial criticism soon appeared in similar form elsewhere. At that time, the error margin was approximately five years; today it is more likely only two years. For some events even the exact date is within reach. This timeline also shows how and when the west Anatolian peoples attacked Syria and southeastern Asia Minor (red arrows), only to be later attacked themselves by the united Greek armies (blue arrows).
Reception history of the Trojan War (29.7 x 42 cm)
Written accounts and transmission of the Trojan War and the events at the end of the Bronze Age over the past 3,000 years. © Eberhard Zangger
After the destruction of Troy, the memory of the city was preserved in a number of ways. More than that, a kind of worship and glorification of Troy arose and lasted until the time of Shakespeare. Along the time axis, the pro-Trojan historians and scholars are shown on the right. After the siege of Vienna by Ottoman troops, a new world view was deliberately created in Europe that would play down the importance of Troy as well as the ancient sources – and this view is still valid.
Satellite image of the Eastern Mediterranean (42 x 29.7 cm)
Exaggerated topography of the countries around eastern Mediterranean area. © Anton Balazh / Shutterstock
This image illustrates the location of Asia Minor at the intersection of three continents and four seas. Cultural influences went from all directions to and through Anatolia. The complicated geography, however, favored a political division into city-states and petty kingdoms in prehistoric times. In historic times Asia Minor became part of various empires.
Entrance to the Dardanelles (42 x 29.7 cm)
Vertically exaggerated 2.5-D view of the entrance to the Dardanelles with Mount Ida in the east and the Marmara Summit on Samothrace in the west.
A geographic information system helps to show how the heights of Mount Ida and the island of Samothrace could have been used as guides for navigating the Aegean. Under a clear sky both mountains are visible from a large distance and in spring their tops are often covered with snow. It is quite conceivable that this arrangement was called “the Pillars of Heracles” before the name was transferred to The Strait of Gibraltar when the Greek view of the world expanded in the 6th century BCE.
Cross-section through Troy and Ilion (42 x 29.7 cm)
Stratigraphic profile through the plain of Troy and the citadel on Hisarlık. © Eberhard Zangger
This image combines for the first time the well-known sequence of deposits on the Hisarlık knoll with sedimentary sequence in the floodplain below. The vertical axis is ten times exaggerated. The stratigraphy reveals sediments with numerous artefacts and architectural remains found in drill holes 5-6 meter below the present surface of the floodplain. A number of indications suggest that these are the buried ruins of the actual city of Troy.
Tell sites of the 2nd mill. BCE in western Asia Minor (42 x 29.7 cm)
Vertical aerial photographs of 16 known tell sites of the 2nd mill. BCE in western Asia Minor. © Google, Digital Globe ve CNES/Astrium
The vertical aerial images provided by Google Earth furnish a clear image of the characteristic appearance of 2nd mill. BCE settlement sites. People concentrated in well-defined places that were almost always near rivers and fertile plains. The settlement mounds have a diameter of 100-500 meters and are 5-25 meters high. Many places were inhabited for thousands of years. The hills formed because the adobe of the houses gradually dissolved and then new buildings were erected on it.
Tell sites in western Asia Minor (42 x 29.7 cm)
Location of the tell sites of the 2nd mill. BC in western Asia Minor in a 2.5-D view using the Geographic Information System ArcGlobe. © Fabian Müller
Serdal Mutlu, archaeologist at Luwian Studies, has determined the precise geographical coordinates for the 340 settlements of the 2nd mill. BCE in western Asia Minor. These were then imported into a geographic information system by Fabian Müller. The locations are shown here in a 2,5-D view from east to west. The topographic information is derived from Shuttle Radar Topographic Mission Data (SRTM) and NASA Blue Marble: Next Generation.