Number: 31
Latitude, longitude: 38.621450, 26.941100

The settlement is situated about 13 km west of the district town of Menemen north of Izmir. It was excavated 1985–2011 under the direction of Armağan Erkanal. The excavations were carried out in a number of different places including the acropolis, the necropolis, and the port. Remains of a Late Bronze Age settlement were found in the region of the acropolis, but these were damaged through construction activities in the Archaic periods. The habitation history at the acropolis began during the 2nd mill. BCE. The excavator interprets the earliest buildings in this area to have belonged to a palace. A lead ingot was found bearing a sign that has been interpreted as a Luwian hieroglyph. Artificial water canals and draw wells point towards a high degree of urbanization. The necropolis was used from 14th to 11th cent. BCE. During the first half of this period, pithos-graves were customary. About 120 of these were excavated. During the second half, tholos graves appeared among various grave types – almost all of them followed local burial rites. Painted Mycenaean pottery, imported or imitated locally, occurred after the 14th cent. BCE. Mycenaean-like seals, jewelry, and bronze weapons were found as gifts in the graves.